Advanced vocabulary


Exacerbate (v.)


Synonyms: Worsen, intensify, aggravate

Meaning: To make a problem or a situation worse.

Common collocations: Exacerbate a problem, exacerbate a situation, exacerbate difficulties.

Example sentence: Try not to exacerbate the problem. Instead, try to be a part of a solution.


Mitigate (v.)


Synonyms: Alleviate, lessen, reduce

Meaning: To make something less severe or painful.

Common collocations: Mitigate the risk / damage / harm / consequences, mitigate the effects / impact, mitigate a problem/situation.

Example sentence: Your positive attitude can mitigate any difficulties you face.


Insurmountable (adj.)


Synonyms: Unconquerable, overwhelming, insuperable

Meaning: Impossible to overcome or deal with, typically due to its difficulty or size.

Common collocations: insurmountable obstacle, insurmountable challenge, insurmountable task

Example sentence: It is not an insurmountable problem. Trust me, you can handle it.


Apprehensive (adj.)


Synonyms: Nervous, anxious, worried

Meaning: Feeling anxious or fearful about something that may happen in the future; having doubts or concerns.

Common collocations: apprehensive about, apprehensive of, apprehensive mood

Example sentence: Despite feeling apprehensive, remember stepping outside your comfort zone often leads to growth and new opportunities.


Disgruntled (adj.)


Synonyms: Unhappy, dissatisfied, discontented

Meaning: Dissatisfied or unhappy, maybe due to an unfair treatment.

Common collocations: disgruntled employee, disgruntled customer, disgruntled workers, disgruntled residents

Example sentence: Even when feeling disgruntled, remember that challenges are temporary, and with patience and resilience, brighter days will come.


Bewildered (adj.)


Synonyms: Confused, puzzled, perplexed

Meaning: Confused, perplexed, or puzzled, perhaps due to a lack of understanding or clarity about something.

Common collocations: bewildered expression, bewildered look, bewildered state, bewildered by

Example sentence: As I watched her sift through old photographs, her eyes filled with tears, I couldn't help but feel bewildered by the depth of emotion hidden within those faded memories.


Impeccable (adj.)


Synonyms: Flawless, perfect, faultless

Meaning: Flawless, perfect, or without any faults; of the highest quality or standard.

Common collocations: impeccable manners, impeccable taste, impeccable reputation, impeccable timing

Example sentence: Gloria's presentation was impeccable, with every detail meticulously planned and flawlessly executed.


Indulge (v.)


Synonyms: Pamper, spoil, gratify

Meaning: To allow oneself to enjoy something pleasurable, especially in a luxurious or excessive way; to gratify or satisfy one's desires or cravings.

Common collocations: indulge in, indulge oneself, indulge a whim, indulge a craving

Example sentence: After a long week of work, she decided to indulge in a hot batch to pamper herself.


Discrepancy (n.)


Synonyms: Difference, inconsistency, disparity

Meaning: A lack of agreement or consistency between two or more things, typically referring to differences or inconsistencies in facts, figures, or statements.

Common collocations: glaring discrepancy, minor discrepancy, discrepancy between, discrepancy in

Example sentence: Despite the discrepancy in our paths, our hearts remained intertwined with the threads of shared memories.


Meticulous (adj.)


Synonyms: Thorough, precise, careful

Meaning: Showing great attention to detail; very careful and precise about small details.

Common collocations: meticulous planning, meticulous attention, meticulous care, meticulous work

Example sentence: In every brushstroke, her meticulous attention to detail mirrored the depth of her love, turning mere canvas into a masterpiece of sentiment.


Ubiquitous (adj.)


Synonyms: Omnipresent, pervasive, widespread

Meaning: Present, or found everywhere.

Common collocations: ubiquitous presence, ubiquitous technology, ubiquitous nature, ubiquitous use

Example sentence: Kindness seemed ubiquitous in this town, spreading like sunshine on a cloudy day.


Intractable (adj.)


Synonyms: Stubborn, unmanageable, unruly

Meaning: Difficult to manage, control, or deal with.

Common collocations: intractable problem, intractable disease, intractable conflict, intractable situation

Example sentence: We are facing an intractable problem.


Ludicrous (adj.)


Synonyms: Absurd, ridiculous, preposterous

Meaning: Stupid or unreasonable and deserving to be laughed at:.

Common collocations: ludicrous idea, ludicrous suggestion, ludicrous statement, ludicrous claim

Example sentence: Coffee at night?? What a ludicrous idea!


Invigorating (adj.)


Synonyms: Refreshing, energizing, exhilarating

Meaning: To make one feel full of life and vitality.

Common collocations: invigorating experience, invigorating activity, invigorating drink, invigorating scent

Example sentence: The brisk morning walk along the beach was invigorating, filling her lungs with fresh air and her spirit with renewed energy.


Stringent (adj.)


Synonyms: Rigorous, strict, demanding

Meaning: Having a very severe effect, or being extremely limiting.

Common collocations: stringent measures, stringent regulations, stringent requirements, stringent criteria

Example sentence: Don't be so stringent about yourself.


Incurable (adj.)


Synonyms: Irreversible, terminal, unhealable

Meaning: Not able to be cured, healed, or remedied.

Common collocations: incurable disease, incurable condition, incurable illness, incurable cancer

Example sentence: Unfortunately, the patient's cancer had progressed to an incurable stage, leaving little hope for recovery.


Omnipotent (adj.)


Synonyms: All-powerful, almighty, supreme

Meaning: Having unlimited or infinite power.

Common collocations: omnipotent deity, omnipotent ruler, omnipotent force

Example sentence: The king believed he was omnipotent, thinking he could control everything in his kingdom.


Preposterous (adj.)


Synonyms: Absurd, ridiculous, nonsensical

Meaning: Very silly or stupid.

Common collocations: preposterous idea, preposterous claim, preposterous suggestion

Example sentence: It seemed preposterous at first, but their friendship blossomed into a beautiful bond that filled their hearts with joy and gratitude.


Amiable (adj.)


Synonyms: Friendly, affable, pleasant

Meaning: Having a kind and agreeable manner.

Common collocations: amiable personality, amiable smile, amiable conversation

Example sentence: Despite the tense situation, he remained amiable and greeted everyone with a warm smile.


Ambiguous (adj.)


Synonyms: Unclear, vague, uncertain

Meaning: Having a double or unclear meaning.

Common collocations: ambiguous statement, ambiguous language, ambiguous meaning, ambiguous situation

Example sentence: The instructions he gave were ambiguous, leaving us unsure about what exactly he wanted us to do.


Allegiance (n.)


Synonyms: Loyalty, fidelity, commitment

Meaning: Loyalty or commitment to a person, group, belief, or country.

Common collocations: pledge allegiance, swear allegiance, allegiance to the flag

Example sentence: Despite growing up in a different country, Tamara pledged her allegiance to her new homeland.


Bland (adj.)


Synonyms: Tasteless, boring, dull

Meaning: Not having a strong taste or character or not showing any interest or energy.

Common collocations: bland food, bland taste, bland personality, bland color

Example sentence: John's speech lacked passion and was rather bland. He failed to capture the audience's attention."


Cumulative (adj.)


Synonyms: Accumulative, amassed, increasing

Meaning: Increasing or growing by addition of successive parts or elements.

Common collocations: cumulative effect, cumulative score, cumulative impact

Example sentence: The small, daily acts of kindness had a cumulative effect, bring a sense of belonging and unity among us.


Courteous (adj.)


Synonyms: Attentive, respectful, thoughtful

Meaning: Polite and showing respect:.

Common collocations: courteous manner, courteous gesture, courteous attitude

Example sentence: The receptionist greeted each guest with a courteous smile and offered assistance.


Dismal (adj.)


Synonyms: Gloomy, discouraging, depressing

Meaning: Very bad or unpleasant and making you feel sad.

Common collocations: dismal weather, dismal outlook, dismal performance

Example sentence: What dismal weather!


Diligent (adj.)


Synonyms: Hardworking, persistent, conscientious

Meaning: Careful and using a lot of effort:

Common collocations: diligent student, diligent effort, diligent preparation

Example sentence: The lawyer was extremely diligent in preparing his case.


Desultory (adj.)


Synonyms: Aimless, chaotic, rambling

Meaning: Without a clear plan or purpose; showing little effort or interest.

Common collocations: desultory conversation, desultory approach, desultory reading

Example sentence: George answered a few questions in a desultory fashion.


Eloquent (adj.)


Synonyms: Articulate, persuasive, fluent

Meaning: Fluent or persuasive in speaking or writing.

Common collocations: eloquent speech, eloquent writing, eloquent speaker, eloquent argument

Example sentence: She was an eloquent speaker, able to move and inspire audiences.


Frugal (adj.)


Synonyms: Thrifty, economical, sparing

Meaning: Careful to buy only what is necessary.

Common collocations: frugal lifestyle, frugal habits, frugal spender, frugal meal

Example sentence: Dan was very frugal, and would often use a tea bag three or four times over.


Famished (adj.)


Synonyms: Hungry, starving, ravenous

Meaning: Extremely hungry.

Common collocations: famished appetite, famished feeling, famished state

Example sentence: What's for dinner? I'm absolutely famished.


Gullible (adj.)


Synonyms: Naive, unskeptical, trusting

Meaning: Easily deceived or tricked because of being too trusting or naive.

Common collocations: gullible person, gullible nature, gullible belief

Example sentence: How can you be so gullible! He isn't telling you the truth!


Indolent (adj.)


Synonyms: Lazy, idle, sluggish

Meaning: Showing no real interest or effort.

Common collocations: indolent behavior, indolent attitude, indolent lifestyle

Example sentence: Despite having many responsibilities, he remained indolent, spending most of his days doing nothing.


Impoverished (adj.)


Synonyms: Poor, deprived, needy

Meaning: Extremely poor or deprived.

Common collocations: impoverished community, impoverished family, impoverished nation, impoverished conditions

Example sentence: The war left many families in the region impoverished, struggling to meet even their basic needs for food and shelter.


Illegible (adj.)


Synonyms: Unreadable, unintelligible, unclear

Meaning: Difficult or impossible to read (due to poor handwriting).

Common collocations: illegible handwriting, illegible text, illegible document, illegible signature

Example sentence: I am sorry for my illegible handwriting.


Lenient (adj.)


Synonyms: Permissive, tolerant, easy-going

Meaning: Not as strict or severe, as we would expect.

Common collocations: lenient approach, lenient punishment, lenient parent, lenient teacher

Example sentence: Sometimes I am accused of being a bit too lenient with my children.


Mediocre (adj.)


Synonyms: Average, ordinary, second rate

Meaning: Not very good.

Common collocations: mediocre performance, mediocre result, mediocre quality, mediocre student

Example sentence: The film's plot is rather predictable and the performance is mediocre.


Mesmerize (v.)


Synonyms: Enthrall, captivate, fascinate

Meaning: To have someone's attention completely so that they cannot think of anything else.

Common collocations: mesmerize audience, mesmerize viewers, mesmerize with / by

Example sentence: I was completely mesmerized by her performance yesterday.


Obsolete (adj.)


Synonyms: Outdated, old-fashioned, no longer in use

Meaning: No longer in use or no longer useful.

Common collocations: obsolete technology, obsolete equipment, obsolete language, obsolete practice

Example sentence: We need to replace some of our obsolete equipment.


Obscure (adj.)


Synonyms: Ambiguous, unclear, mysterious

Meaning: Not clear and difficult to understand or see.

Common collocations: obscure meaning, obscure language, obscure origin, obscure artist

Example sentence: His answers were obscure and confusing.


Pungent (adj.)


Synonyms: Strong, sharp, intense

Meaning: Having a strong, sharp, or penetrating smell, taste or effect.

Common collocations: pungent odor, pungent flavor, pungent scent

Example sentence: She is very good at writing pungent, funny dialogues.


Rectify (v.)


Synonyms: Correct, fix, amend

Meaning: To correct or make sonething right.

Common collocations: rectify mistake, rectify error, rectify problem, rectify situation

Example sentence: I will do my best to rectify the situation, make up for the damages.


Startle (v.)


Synonyms: Astonish, stagger, terrify

Meaning: To do something unexpected that surprises and worries a person.

Example sentence: Sorry, I didn’t mean to startle you.


Studious (adj.)


Synonyms: Diligent, hardworking, scholarly

Meaning: A studious person enjoys studying or spends a lot of time studying.

Common collocations: studious student, studious behavior, studious attitude, studious dedication

Example sentence: The report was obviously prepared with studious care and attention.


Sorrowful (adj.)


Synonyms: Mournful, sad, grief-stricken

Meaning: Full of sadness or grief; expressing or characterized by sorrow or mourning.

Common collocations: sorrowful expression, sorrowful eyes, sorrowful heart, sorrowful occasion

Example sentence: The widow stood by the graveside with a sorrowful expression, mourning the loss of her husband.


Spendthrift (adj.)


Synonyms: Wasteful, irresponsible, big spender

Meaning: Characterized by wasteful or extravagant spending habits.

Common collocations: spendthrift behavior, spendthrift lifestyle, spendthrift spender

Example sentence: The spendthrift habits of some politicians were criticized by many citizens, especially during times of economic hardship.


Vigorous (adj.)


Synonyms: Robust, energetic, lively

Meaning: Full of physical strength, vitality, or energy.

Common collocations: vigorous debate, vigorous effort, vigorous growth

Example sentence: After a vigorous workout at the gym, she felt refreshed and invigorated.


Abstruse (adj.)


Synonyms: Complex, obscure, difficult

Meaning: Difficult to understand (often about concepts or ideas).

Common collocations: abstruse theory, abstruse language, abstruse concept, abstruse subject

Example sentence: The professor's lecture on quantum mechanics was so abstruse that few students were able to grasp its main idea.


Admonish (v.)


Synonyms: Reprimand, scold, caution

Meaning: To warn or reprimand someone firmly.

Common collocations: admonish someone, admonish against, admonish for, admonish with caution

Example sentence: The teacher admonished the students for talking during the exam.


Benevolent (adj.)


Synonyms: Kindhearted, charitable, philanthropic

Meaning: Showing kindness, goodwill, and a desire to do good.

Common collocations: benevolent person, benevolent organization, benevolent gesture, benevolent act

Example sentence: Jack was a benevolent man and wouldn't hurt a fly.


Diffident (adj.)


Synonyms: Shy, timid, reserved

Meaning: Lacking in confidence or self-assurance (especially when interacting with others or expressing oneself).

Common collocations: diffident personality, diffident manner, diffident behavior, diffident approach

Example sentence: Due to his diffident nature, Boris often hesitated to speak up in meetings, even when he had valuable contributions to offer.


Dubious (adj.)


Synonyms: Questionable, doubtful, uncertain

Meaning: Marked by doubt or uncertainty; skeptical, hesitant, or distrustful, often due to lacking confidence in something or someone.

Common collocations: dubious claim, dubious reputation, dubious decision, dubious source

Example sentence: The company's financial statements raised dubious questions among investors, leading to concerns about the accuracy of its reported earnings.


Fastidious (adj.)


Synonyms: Meticulous, meticulous, critical

Meaning: Showing excessive attention to detail; very attentive to and concerned about accuracy and cleanliness, sometimes to an extent that may be perceived as overly particular or finicky.

Common collocations: fastidious person, fastidious attention, fastidious taste, fastidious habits

Example sentence: Sarah was known for her fastidious nature when it came to cleanliness, often spending hours meticulously cleaning every corner of her apartment.


Gregarious (adj.)


Synonyms: Sociable, outgoing, extroverted

Meaning: Fond of the company of others; sociable, outgoing, and enjoying the company of others.

Common collocations: gregarious personality, gregarious nature, gregarious behavior, gregarious individual

Example sentence: Mark was a gregarious person who thrived in social situations, always eager to meet new people and engage in lively conversations.


Judicious (adj.)


Synonyms: Prudent, wise, sensible

Meaning: Showing good judgment, wisdom, or discretion in making decisions or taking action; careful and thoughtful in considering options and consequences.

Common collocations: judicious decision, judicious use, judicious approach, judicious consideration

Example sentence: The judge made a judicious ruling after carefully evaluating all the evidence presented in the case.


Lucid (adj.)



Meaning: Expressed clearly and easy to understand; characterized by clarity and coherence in thought, speech, or writing.

Common collocations: lucid explanation, lucid writing, lucid speech, lucid dream

Example sentence: Despite the complexity of the topic, the professor delivered a lucid lecture that clarified many difficult concepts for the students.

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