Writing phrases and linking words

Introduction

  • More and more families are choosing to have only one child.
  • The trend nowadays is towards having smaller families.
  • Over the past ten years or so the media have frequently carried reports of …
  • Recent research indicates that the number of teenagers who smoke is increasing.
  • Hardly a week goes by without another report of … appearing in the media.
  • This raises the issue of whether …
  • Although most people would generally agree that … few would deny that …
  • There are differing explanations / opinions as to why….
  • It is first necessary to explain…
  • In the following essay will be examined.
  • People (sometimes) claim that … but I feel that …
  • It is often said/argued that … However, it seems to me that …
  • It is a fact that …
  • Over the past few months/years, it seems that …
  • Recently, we have all become concerned that …
  • Nowadays, we are all realising that …
  • In the past, people used to …, but now …
  • These days, it seems that ….

Giving opinion

  • It seems to me that … I would also say that …
  • I am convinced that …
  • I am inclined to believe that …
  • There is no doubt in my mind that …
  • One of the drawbacks of … is …
  • However, one of the benefits is that …
  • I think that
  • In my opinion / in my own view / to my mind
  • This is a matter of opinion
  • In my experience
  • As far as I know
  • As far as I am concerned
  • To tell you the truth
  • I am convinced that
  • I firmly believe that
  • As I see it,
  • To me,
  • From my personal point of view,
  • It seems to me that
  • I personally believe that
  • From my perspective
  • To my way of thinking
  • It appears to me that

Presenting arguments

  • One justification often given for … is that…
  • Advocates / Proponents would claim that …
  • Those who object to … often argue that …
  • Another objection is that …
  • However, it should not be forgotten that …
  • … are opposed to … on the grounds that …
  • From the point of view of …

Describing causes

  • One factor which has led to … is …
  • As regards the causes for this, …
  • Concerning the causes for this, …
  • As for the causes, …
  • One of the factors which has brought this about is …
  • The problem often stems from …
  • The situation has been exacerbated by …
  • … has only made the situation worse.
  • One consequence of … is …

Proposing measures

  • As regards the most appropriate response to this situation, one suggestion would be to …
  • The first step to be taken would be to …
  • To alleviate the situation people should …
  • In addition they ought to …
  • To begin to tackle this situation society / individuals / the government need / s to …
  • … would certainly ameliorate the situation.
  • This can only be dealt with if …
  • To overcome this problem, …
  • Were the government to …, the situation would doubtless improve.
  • Individuals can do a great deal to …
  • The burden of responsiblity lies in the hands of …
  • It is vitally important that …
  • Legislation should be introduced to control …
  • It would be a grave error if we …

Contrasting

  • Another important distinction between … and … is that…
  • I would like to distinguish between … and …
  • The essential difference is that…
  • The essential point on which I differ is that…
  • There is however an important difference between … and …
  • There are some respects in which … differs from …
  • This difference clearly cannot be explained by…
  • We must here make a distinction.
  • Whereas
  • Withal (к тому же)
  • Nonetheless
  • Notwithstanding
  • Even so
  • Even though
  • However,
  • But
  • On the contrary,
  • On the other hand,
  • Differ from
  • Although
  • Though
  • Otherwise
  • Instead
  • Alternatively

To State the Reasons

  • There are different reasons why it …
  • There are several explanations for …
  • There are many positive/negative reasons for …
  • There are some/more/fewer benefits/disadvantages to …

To Give an Opinion

  • (Why) I believe
  • I'd like to explain why
  • Personally
  • I'd enjoy
  • I would prefer
  • I think
  • In my opinion
  • As far as I'm concerned
  • It seems to me
  • I suggest

To Set Up a Condition

  • If
  • Even if
  • If I could
  • Whether (or not)
  • . . .may/might
  • . . .can be

To Further the Argument

  • First (of all) . . . Second . . .Third
  • Firstly … Secondly … Thirdly
  • In addition
  • There are three reasons why
  • Similarly
  • Furthermore
  • Moreover
  • Further
  • As an example
  • For instance
  • What's more
  • Not only . . . but also
  • . . . including
  • More than
  • Also
  • . . . coupled with
  • Both . . . and

To Summarize / Conclude

  • In conclusion
  • Finally
  • As a result (of)
  • In summary
  • Therefore
  • To sum up
  • In other words
  • To summarize
  • Then
  • In brief
  • On the whole
  • To conclude
  • As we have seen
  • As has been said

To Restate or Repeat an Argument

  • To put it differently
  • To repeat
  • Namely
  • That is
  • In other words

To Show Cause/Reason and Effect/Result

  • Consequently
  • Because (of)
  • Due to
  • Thanks to
  • If this occurs, then
  • To this end
  • Since
  • For this reason
  • As a result
  • Caused by

To Show Time Relationships

  • Immediately
  • Then
  • Later
  • Afterwards
  • After
  • Before
  • While
  • During
  • As soon as
  • As
  • Sometimes
  • Last
  • Frequently
  • When
  • Once
  • Often
  • Oftentimes

To Generalize

  • Overall
  • For the most part
  • In general
  • Generally speaking
  • By and large

To Show Contrast/Make an Exception

  • Some may argue that
  • Although
  • Even though
  • Whereas
  • Instead
  • In contrast
  • On the one hand
  • On the other hand
  • However
  • In spite of
  • Despite
  • Unlike
  • On the contrary
  • But
  • Yet
  • Rather than
  • Either
  • Or
  • Nor
  • Neither
  • Either . . . or
  • Neither . . . nor
  • Nevertheless
  • Nonetheless
  • Sometimes
  • Once in a while
  • Occasionally
  • Some…other(s)
  • Other(s)
  • Often
  • None

To Emphasize

  • Above all
  • Obviously
  • Clearly
  • Evidently
  • Actually
  • In fact
  • Certainly
  • Definitely
  • Extremely
  • Indeed
  • Absolutely
  • Positively
  • Surprisingly
  • Unquestionably
  • Without a doubt
  • Objectively
  • In fact

To Argue/Make a Suggestion

  • . . . seems to warrant
  • . . . contend/s
  • . . . argue/s
  • . . . justify/ies
  • This observation is supported by
  • To plead
  • . . . suggest/s
  • The suggestion is valid
  • . . . propose/s
  • . . . claim/s
  • . . .state/s
  • . . . clearly proof enough
  • If I had the choice
  • . . . examine/s
  • . . . assert/s

To Show Disagreement

  • . . . object/s (to)
  • . . . disagree/s with
  • . . . contradict/s
  • . . . doesn't/don't support
  • . . . is/are invalid
  • These arguments, one by one, can be challenged
  • . . . is absurd/ridiculous/unfounded/illogical
  • . . . not to be taken seriously
  • . . . has/have no scientific basis
  • . . . dispute/s

To Choose One Option over

  • Another
  • . . . might be the better option
  • . . . make/s it a better policy
  • It's beneficial/better/positive
  • It's detrimental/worse/negative
  • . . . is true/false
  • The assertion that…
  • . . . seem/s to offer strong arguments for/against
  • . . . is/are better/worse than

To Show Similarity

  • Just as
  • As . . . as
  • In the same way
  • Similarly
  • Likewise
  • As in/as with/as was/etc.

To Show Purpose

  • In order to
  • For
  • So that
  • So as to

To Show Evidence/Give an

  • Example
  • As evidence of
  • The legitimacy of
  • Such as
  • For example
  • A few of these are
  • In the case of
  • In addition
  • For one thing . . . for another

To State the Problem

  • The problem is (how)
  • The question is
  • What is being asked/challenged

To State the Options

  • One option is
  • The other option is

Generalizing

  • Generally,
  • Generally speaking,
  • Overall,
  • On the whole,
  • In general,
  • By and large,
  • It seems to me that
  • All in all,
  • Basically,
  • Essentially,
  • As a rule,
  • All things considered
  • For the most part

Expressing certainty

  • Absolutely
  • Certainly,
  • Definitely,
  • Doubtless,
  • Genuinely
  • Indubitably
  • Needless to say
  • No doubt,
  • Of course,
  • Rightfully
  • Sincerely
  • Surely
  • Truly
  • Undoubtedly,
  • Without doubt

Expressing partial agreement

  • Almost,
  • Dubious (сомнительный)
  • Dubitable (Open to doubt or suspicion)
  • In a way,
  • More likely
  • More or less,
  • Most likely
  • Possibly
  • Probably
  • So to speak,
  • To some extent,
  • Up to a point,

Showing cause

  • Due to
  • Because
  • Because of
  • Owing to

Showing effect

  • Therefore,
  • As a result,
  • Consequently,
  • For this reason,
  • Thus,
  • So,
  • thereby
  • Eventually,
  • Hence,
  • The reason why

Marking sequence

  • After
  • After this / that
  • Afterwards
  • As soon as
  • At the same time
  • Before
  • Currently
  • During
  • Eventually
  • Finally
  • First of all,
  • First, Second, etc.
  • Firstly,
  • Following this
  • Formerly
  • Henceforth (отныне, впредь)
  • Hitherto, Heretofore (до сих пор)
  • Immediately
  • In due time
  • Initially
  • Last
  • Lastly,
  • Later
  • Meanwhile
  • Next
  • Once
  • Previously
  • Simultaneously
  • Since
  • Soon
  • Subsequently
  • Then,
  • To begin with
  • While

Adding Information

  • Another possibility is that…
  • As well as
  • At the same time it is true to say…
  • Besides
  • Furthermore
  • In addition…
  • In any case…
  • It should also be emphasized that…
  • It should also be noted that…
  • Likewise
  • Mention should also be made of…
  • Moreover
  • Related to these arguments is the critique that…
  • Similarly
  • The corollary of this is that…
  • The key point to note is that…
  • The same can be said of…
  • The same is true of…
  • There were other factors which arguably counted for more.
  • This idea is supported by
  • This is further illustrated by….
  • This is further shown by the fact that….
  • What’s more

Expressing condition

  • Given
  • If
  • In case
  • Providing
  • One the condition of
  • Provided that
  • Provision, proviso (A stipulated condition)
  • Stipulate (Specify as a condition or requirement in a contract)
  • Unless
  • Whenever
  • Whether

Weighing up arguments

  • On the one hand … on the other hand
  • To consider the advantages and disadvantages
  • Arguments for and against
  • To discuss the pros and cons
  • In theory … in reality
  • Both… and…
  • Not only … but also
  • As a matter of fact
  • By no means / not at all

Giving examples

  • A classic illustration often cited is…
  • Another example of this may be given.
  • et cetera / and so on / and so forth
  • In particular / particularly
  • In the … case this was perhaps the most obvious.
  • More detailed studies show that…
  • Only in one respect does the advantage seem to be with…
  • The evidence of … is even more obvious in the case of…
  • The origins of … can be traced back to…
  • This was by no means unique.
  • This was typified by…
  • To illustrate this point
  • To take yet another illustration…

Giving explanations

  • A general explanation remains difficult to find / elusive.
  • How are we to explain …?
  • If one looks at … in historical perspective, one finds that …
  • Moreover it is at least arguable that…
  • Partly for this reason it was inevitable that…
  • The first thing we notice is the…
  • The main reason it happened was that…
  • The reality was at best that…
  • This achievement was primarily due to…
  • This applies especially to…
  • This in turn means that…
  • This is the key to the problem.
  • This means that…
  • This takes us to the heart of the matter
  • This was one of the most important reasons why…
  • Yet the important point to note is that…

Arguing

  • At the same time it could be argued that…
  • For one thing it could be argued that…
  • Indeed, it might be argued that…
  • It is interesting to speculate on what would happen if…
  • It is tempting to pose another question.
  • It may well be asked how…
  • It might be argued that…
  • Nor is it entirely fanciful to suggest that…
  • Of course it could be argued that…
  • Still, there is no denying that…
  • This is not to say that there are not…
  • Though it may seem a stretch to compare x with y…
  • More controversial is the question as to whether…

Concluding

  • All in all it seems to me that …
  • All things considered, …
  • Consequently
  • Corollary (естественный вывод)
  • Finally / Lastly,
  • For the aforementioned reasons, there is no doubt that
  • Given these facts
  • Hence
  • In all due fairness
  • In conclusion,
  • In the final analysis this may be the best explanation of all.
  • It is difficult to escape the conclusion that…
  • It seems not implausible to link … with …
  • Judged by this criteria…
  • Judged by this measure…
  • Last but not least
  • More generally it seems hard to deny that…
  • Nothing can detract from the central fact that…
  • On balance, I tend to believe that …
  • Overall
  • Summing up
  • Taking everything into account / consideration,
  • The obvious conclusion to be drawn is that …
  • Thence (From that fact or reason or as a result)
  • Therefore
  • Therefrom (From that circumstance or source)
  • Thereof (Of or concerning this or that, From that circumstance or source)
  • Thus
  • Thusly (In the way indicated)
  • To conclude,
  • To put it briefly
  • To put it simply…
  • to sum up / to summarize we can say
  • To sum up the foregoing,
  • To summarize
  • With good judgment,
  • … it can be said / claimed that …
  • … it seems / appears that…
  • … it would seem that…
  • … it is likely / unlikely / possible / foreseeable that …
  • … it is clear / obvious that…
  • … there is no / little doubt that …
  • … it is true to say that …
  • … although it must be said that …
  • … it may be concluded / said that …

Other useful phrases

  • It can be argued that…
  • It is important to recognize that…
  • It is only to be expected that…
  • It is also worth noting that…
  • It is likely that…
  • It is possible that…
  • It is anticipated that…
  • It is not clear whether…
  • It is significant that…
  • It is assumed that…
  • It is not surprising then, that…
  • It is sometimes suggested that…
  • It is clear that…
  • It is not surprising to find that…
  • It is unlikely that…
  • It is difficult to see…
  • It is not unreasonable to suggest that…
  • It is worth pointing out that…
  • It is essential, therefore, that…
  • It is not, however, simply a matter of…
  • It may seem surprising to say that…
  • It is evident that…
  • It is noteworthy that…
  • It seems that…
  • It is for this reason that…
  • It is now clear that…
  • It would seem clear that…
  • It is important to note that…
  • It is often argued that…
  • ‘one’
  • one could envisage
  • one might expect
  • one need only turn to
  • one could argue that
  • one might ask
  • The question one seeks to answer is
  • one could seriously question
  • one must remember

To describe

  • To portray
  • To depict (изображать, описывать, обрисовывать)
  • To exhibit
  • To illustrate
  • To expose
  • To present
  • To paint a portrait
  • To limn (описывать, изображать, украшать)
  • To delineate (очерчивать, обрисовывать)
  • To represent
  • To demonstrate
  • To constitute - Form or compose
  • To embody - (v) Represent or express in tangible form (embodiment); embodied - (adj)

To prove

  • To manifest - Provide evidence for; stand as proof of
  • To attest - Provide evidence for
  • To testify - Provide evidence for
  • To certify - Provide evidence for
  • To endorse, indorse - Give support or one's approval to
  • To shew - Establish the validity of something, as by an example, explanation or experiment
  • To establish
  • To instance - (v) Clarify by giving an example of
  • To exemplify - (v) Clarify by giving an example of
  • To compare or contrast

Positive words

  • magnificent
  • grandeur - The quality of being magnificent or splendid or grand, the quality of being exalted in character or ideals or conduct
  • magnanimous - The quality of being exalted in character or ideals or conduct
  • fantastic
  • fantastical
  • phenomenal
  • wonderful
  • extraordinary
  • marvelous
  • superb
  • good
  • fine
  • great
  • avid - Emotionally desirable
  • avid ambition to succeed
  • excellent
  • spectacular
  • prodigious
  • grand
  • brilliant
  • glorious - Bringing great happiness and thankfulness
  • illustrious - Widely known and esteemed
  • notable - Worthy of notice
  • respected
  • impressive
  • splendid
  • splendiferous - Having great beauty and splendor
  • resplendent - Having great beauty and splendor, Richly and brilliantly colorful
  • flamboyant - Elaborately or excessively ornamented, Richly and brilliantly colorful
  • redoubtable - Having or worthy of pride
  • formidable - Extremely impressive in strength or excellence
  • prowess
  • superior
  • terrific
  • tremendous
  • wondrous - Extraordinarily good
  • wonderful
  • sublime - Inspiring awe, Lifted up or set high
  • flair - natural talent
  • knack - A special way of doing something
  • outshine - Attract more attention and praise than others
  • paramount - Having superior power and influence
  • predominant
  • preponderating
  • prevailing

To show intelligence

  • profound
  • shrewd – hardheaded (practical experience and observation) intelligence
  • astute
  • acumen - Shrewdness shown by keen insight
  • insightful
  • savvy - The cognitive condition of someone who understands
  • cognition - The psychological result of perception, learning and reasoning
  • genius
  • smart
  • sharp
  • keen
  • mastermind
  • Einstein - Someone who has exceptional intellectual ability and originality
  • work of art
  • fine art
  • maven - Someone who is dazzlingly skilled in any field
  • mavin - Someone who is dazzlingly skilled in any field
  • adept - Someone who is dazzlingly skilled in any field
  • whiz - Someone who is dazzlingly skilled in any field
  • wizard - Someone who is dazzlingly skilled in any field

To intensify

  • incredibly
  • exceedingly
  • toppingly - extremely well
  • extremely
  • extraordinarily
  • truly
  • really
  • very
  • utterly - Completely and without qualification; used informally as intensifiers, With sublimity; in a sublime manner
  • absolutely
  • perfectly
  • sublimely
  • dramatically
  • sheer - (adj.) Complete and without restriction or qualification; sometimes used informally as an intensifier; (adv.) Directly "he fell sheer into the water"

It is said

  • enounced, enunciated - Speak, pronounce, or utter in a certain way
  • pronounced - Speak, pronounce, or utter in a certain way
  • articulated - Express or state clearly
  • vocalized - Express or state clearly
  • posited - Put firmly
  • stated
  • expressed
  • reported
  • alleged - Declared but not proved
  • averred - Report or maintain, To declare or affirm in a grave manner and formally as true
  • affirmed, asserted
  • wrote
  • composed
  • indited - Produce a literary work
  • penned - Produce a literary work
  • spelt - Indicate or signify
  • voiced, sounded - Give voice to
  • demean - Reduce in worth or character, usually verbally

It is noted

  • remarked
  • denoted - Be a sign or indication of, "Her smile denoted that she agreed"
  • observed
  • commented
  • mentioned
  • referred
  • announced
  • noticed

Precisely

  • explicitly
  • accurately
  • expressly
  • exactly
  • incisively

Numerous

  • innumerable
  • many
  • various
  • several
  • diverse
  • umpteen
  • umteen
  • myriad (noun and adj.)

Praise

  • extol - (v) Praise, glorify, or honor
  • exalt
  • glorify
  • laud
  • proclaim
  • revere
  • idolize
  • worship
  • venerate

Call forth

  • evoke - Call forth (emotions, feelings, and responses)
  • arouse - Call forth (emotions, feelings, and responses)
  • elicit - Call forth (emotions, feelings, and responses)
  • enkindle - Call forth (emotions, feelings, and responses)
  • provoke - Call forth (emotions, feelings, and responses)
  • inflame - Arouse or excite feelings and passions
  • awake - Stop sleeping
  • conjure - Evoke or call forth, with or as if by magic
  • invoke - Evoke or call forth, with or as if by magic
  • summon - Gather or bring together
  • instill - deposit gradually

Adding ideas

  • again
  • also
  • as well as
  • besides
  • coupled with  
  • for example (e.g.)
  • for instance
  • furthermore
  • in addition
  • in fact
  • indeed
  • likewise
  • moreover
  • once more
  • similarly
  • that is (i.e.)
  • then too

As expected

  • as a matter of fact
  • for that matter
  • it follows that
  • naturally
  • obviously
  • of course
  • surely
  • to be sure

Restatement

  • in essence
  • in other words
  • namely
  • that is
  • that is to say
  • in short
  • in brief
  • to put it differently

Cause and effect

  • accordingly
  • and so
  • that’s why
  • as a consequence
  • as a result
  • as might be expected
  • consequently
  • for this purpose
  • for this reason
  • hence
  • otherwise
  • since
  • so then
  • subsequently
  • then
  • therefore
  • thereupon
  • thus
  • wherefore

Contrast

  • at the same time
  • but
  • by the same token
  • contrast
  • conversely
  • despite
  • however
  • in contrast
  • in spite of
  • instead
  • likewise
  • nevertheless
  • nonetheless
  • not at all
  • notwithstanding
  • on one hand
  • on the contrary
  • on the other hand
  • rather
  • similarly
  • still
  • unlike
  • yet

Sequence

  • at first
  • first of all
  • to begin with
  • in the first place
  • at the same time
  • for now
  • for the time being
  • the next step
  • in time
  • in turn
  • later on
  • meanwhile
  • next
  • then
  • soon
  • the meantime
  • later
  • while
  • earlier
  • simultaneously
  • afterward
  • in conclusion
  • with this in mind  

Concession

  • although
  • but of course
  • certainly
  • doubtless
  • granted that
  • of course
  • though
  • to be sure
  • to doubt that
  • whereas

Direction

  • here
  • there
  • over there
  • beyond
  • nearly
  • opposite
  • under
  • above
  • to the left
  • to the right
  • in the distance

Degrees of certainty

  • anyhow
  • anyway
  • certainly
  • doubtless
  • in all likelihood
  • in all probability
  • in any case
  • indeed
  • perhaps
  • possibly
  • probably
  • surely

Qualification

  • especially
  • frequently
  • if
  • in case
  • in general
  • in particular
  • inasmuch
  • lest
  • occasionally
  • particularly
  • provided that
  • specifically
  • unless

Repetition

  • as noted
  • as noted earlier
  • as we have seen
  • besides
  • in any case
  • in fact
  • in other words
  • indeed
  • to put it another way
  • to repeat

Similarity

  • comparatively
  • coupled with
  • correspondingly
  • identically
  • likewise
  • similar
  • moreover
  • together with

Emphasis

  • above all
  • chiefly
  • with attention to
  • especially
  • particularly
  • singularly

Generalizing

  • as a rule
  • as usual
  • for the most part
  • generally
  • generally speaking
  • ordinarily
  • usually

Exemplifying

  • as an example
  • as an illustration
  • chiefly
  • especially
  • for example
  • for instance
  • for one thing
  • illustrated with
  • in particular
  • in this case
  • including
  • markedly
  • namely
  • particularly
  • specifically
  • such as

Exception

  • aside from
  • barring
  • besides
  • except
  • excepting
  • excluding
  • exclusive of
  • other than
  • outside of
  • save

Summary

  • all in all
  • all things considered
  • briefly
  • by and large
  • finally
  • in a word
  • in any case
  • in any event
  • in brief
  • in conclusion
  • in short
  • in summary
  • in summation
  • in the final analysis
  • in the long run
  • on balance
  • on the whole
  • therefore
  • to conclude
  • to make a long story short
  • to sum it up
  • to summarize