Academic writing phrases


“Frogs are amphibians. In other words, they live on the land and in the water.”

“Plants rely on photosynthesis. To put it another way, they will die without the sun.”

“Whales are mammals. That is to say, they must breathe air.”

“Zoologists have long sought to understand how animals communicate with each other. To that end [=so], a new study has been launched that looks at elephant sounds and their possible meanings.”

In order to understand X, we need first to understand Y.”

Adding ideas

Moreover, the results of a recent piece of research provide compelling evidence in support of…”

Furthermore, there is evidence to suggest that…”

“Scholar A believes X. Likewise [= similarly], Scholar B argues compellingly in favour of this point of view.”

“Audiences at the time reacted with shock to Beethoven’s new work, because it was very different to what they were used to. Similarly, we have a tendency to react with surprise to the unfamiliar.”

“As a Romantic, Blake was a proponent of a closer relationship between humans and nature. Another key point to remember is that Blake was writing during the Industrial Revolution, which had a major impact on the world around him.”

“Scholar A argued that this was due to X, as well as Y.”

Not only did Edmund Hillary have the honour of being the first to reach the summit of Everest, but he was also appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire.”

Coupled with the literary evidence, the statistics paint a compelling view of…”

“The war caused unprecedented suffering to millions of people, not to mention its impact on the country’s economy.”

“People of the same age and gender still have different interests, to say nothing of their different socio-economic and demographic backgrounds.”


“Scholar A thinks this. However, Scholar B reached a different conclusion.”

“The historical evidence appears to suggest a clear-cut situation. On the other hand, the archaeological evidence presents a somewhat less straightforward picture of what happened that day.”

“The historians are unanimous in telling us X, an agreement that suggests that this version of events must be an accurate account. Having said that, the archaeology tells a different story.”

“Scholar A’s opinion, then, is based on insufficient evidence. By contrast, Scholar B’s opinion seems more plausible.”

“Scholar A’s opinion, then, is based on insufficient evidence. In compariso, Scholar B’s opinion seems more plausible.”

“Writer A asserts that this was the reason for what happened. Then again [= that sauid // indicate doubtful], it’s possible that he was being paid to say this.”

“The evidence ostensibly appears to point to this conclusion. That said [= then again], much of the evidence is unreliable at best.”

“Much of scholarship has focused on this evidence. Yet not everyone agrees that this is the most important aspect of the situation.”

Shortfalling in evidence

“We’ve seen that the methods used in the 19th century study did not always live up to the rigorous standards expected in scientific research today, which makes it difficult to draw definite conclusions. With this in mind, let’s look at a more recent study to see how the results compare.”

“We may use this as evidence to support our argument, provided that [= on condition that] we bear in mind the limitations of the methods used to obtain it.”

In light of [= in the view of] the evidence from the 2013 study, we have a better understanding of…”

“The study had its limitations, but it was nonetheless groundbreaking for its day.”

“The study was flawed, but it was important nevertheless.”

Notwithstanding [= regardless] the limitations of the methodology used, it was an important study in the development of how we view the workings of the human mind.”


“Some birds migrate to avoid harsher winter climates. Swallows, for instance, leave the UK in early winter and fly south…”

To give an illustration of what I mean, let’s look at the case of…”


Significantly, Tacitus omits to tell us the kind of gossip prevalent in Suetonius’ accounts of the same period.”

“Actual figures are notably absent from Scholar A’s analysis.”

Importantly, Scholar A was being employed by X when he wrote this work, and was presumably therefore under pressure to portray the situation more favourably than he perhaps might otherwise have done.”


In conclusion, the evidence points almost exclusively to Argument A.”

Above all, it seems pertinent to remember that…”

“Scholar A’s point – that Constanze Mozart was motivated by financial gain – seems to me to be the most persuasive argument for her actions following Mozart’s death.”

“The most compelling [= persuasive] argument is presented by Scholar A.”

All things considered [= taking everything into account], it seems reasonable to assume that…”

Part 2

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Comparative Adjectives (01)

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