Covid-19 словарь английского языка


Список распространенных терминов английского языка, используемых при описании случаев заражения короновирусом (Covid-19), их объяснение и перевод на русский язык.

Материал для изучения
  English Русский Explanation
1 asymptomatic бессимптомный showing no symptoms of a particular disease - She had no idea her husband had coronavirus because he was asymptomatic
2 carrier переносчик a person or animal that transmits a disease to others, whether suffering from it themselves or not - People who are asymptomatic can still be carriers.
3 community spread распространение в обществе transmission of a disease directly within a community and not by importation from a foreign source - With this many new positive cases, the evidence suggests that we now have community spread right here in our county.
4 contagious заразный describing a disease that can pass from person to person, usually by direct contact; describing a person with such a disease. See infectious - Patients who are still contagious are kept in isolation.
5 coronavirus коронавирус any one of a large family of viruses that can cause disease in the breathing and eating systems of humans and animals (respiratory and digestive systems).
6 diagnose диагностировать identify an illness by examining the symptoms - Only a medical professional can properly diagnose the cause of your problem.
7 disease болезнь illness; sickness; a disorder of the body - Polio is one of several serious diseases that have been nearly eradicated.
8 droplets капли the spray produced when people cough or sneeze, and which can spread diseases like COVID-19 - Health care personnel wear protective clothing to guard against the disease carried in droplets when infected people sneeze or cough.
9 epidemic эпидемия occurrence of a particular disease in a large number of people in a particular area. See outbreak, pandemic - The city was devastated by an epidemic of cholera in the 19th century.
10 flatten the curve выровнять кривую change the steep upward curve on a graph of new disease cases to a flatter, shallower upward curve over a longer time period through measures such as social distancing.
11 herd immunity коллективный иммунитет an indirect protection from a disease resulting from a large percentage of the population gaining immunity (either through vaccination or through recovering from the disease) - This virus is unlike the seasonal flu because there is currently no vaccine or herd immunity, he said.
12 incubation period период инкубации the time from a person’s first exposure to a disease to the time when symptoms develop - When they know the incubation period they will know how long to keep people in quarantine.
13 infect заразить affect a human or animal with a disease-causing organism - But can it infect human beings?
14 infectious заразный describing a disease that can be transmitted through the environment; describing a human or animal capable of spreading an infection. See contagious - Avoid the dogs as they may still be infectious.
15 isolate изолировать keep an infected person away from healthy people - They will isolate anyone suspected of having the disease.
16 mask маска a piece of fibre or cloth that fits over the nose and mouth to protect other people from the wearer's germs and/or the wearer from germs in the air.
17 novel coronavirus новый коронавирус the word novel means “new”, and a newly identified coronavirus strain is often called a novel coronavirus - Until they gave it a name, they mostly referred to COVID-19 as novel coronavirus (disease).
18 outbreak вспышка a sudden occurrence of a disease (or other unpleasant thing). See epidemic, pandemic - There was another outbreak of the disease in 1993 but the cause was uncertain.
19 pathogen возбудитель a micro-organism or germ such as a bacterium or virus that can cause disease - Fortunately, most pathogens are dealt with by the body's immune system.
20 patient zero / Index patient нулевой пациент the person identified as the first to become infected with a disease in an outbreak.
21 PCR test ПЦР тест test that detects viral particles in blood or other body fluids. (PCR = polymerase chain reaction).
22 quarantine карантин isolation and monitoring of people who seem healthy but may have been exposed to an infectious disease to see if they develop symptoms.
23 social distancing социальное дистанцирование practice of encouraging people to minimize contact and closeness, whether by banning large or even small groups/meetings (football matches, nightclubs), or by maintaining a minimum distance between people (for example one metre or two metres).
24 symptomatic симптоматический showing symptoms of a particular disease - Anyone who is symptomatic is advised to phone a doctor and get tested.
25 test negative / test positive тест отрицательный / тест положительный if you take a test for an infection and you test negative, that means you do not have the infection. If you test positive, that means you have the infection.
26 transmission [transmit (v.)] передача [передавать (гл.)] transfer of a disease from animal to human or from human to human - Transmission of many diseases can be direct or indirect.
27 treat лечить attempt to cure or alleviate an illness or injury through medical care - Doctors cannot currently treat COVID-19 directly and instead concentrate on relieving symptoms.
28 vaccine вакцина a substance used to protect humans and animals from a disease - A vaccine for cholera was invented in 1879.
29 viral вирусный describing something like, caused by, or relating to a virus or viruses - Antibiotics cannot be used to treat viral infections because they don't kill viruses, only bacteria.
30 virus вирус a living thing, too small to be seen without a microscope, that causes infectious disease in animals and humans - Like all diseases caused by viruses, the common cold cannot be cured with antibiotics.
31 Acute respiratory stress syndrome (ARDS) Синдром острого респираторного дистресс-синдрома (ОРДС) a condition in which fluid builds up in the air sacs of the lungs. The fluid prohibits the lungs from getting enough air, leading to a deprivation of oxygen in the bloodstream. The condition is often fatal.
32 Case fatality rate Летальность the ratio of deaths from COVID-19 to the total number of individuals diagnosed with the disease.
33 Clinical trial Клинические испытания research experiments on human participants designed to answer questions about new treatments; in the case of COVID-19 and coronaviruses, the safety and efficacy of a potential vaccine.
34 Contact tracing Отслеживание контактов identifying and monitoring people who may have come into contact with an infectious person. In the case of COVID-19, monitoring usually involves self-quarantine as an effort to control the spread of disease.
35 Contactless Бесконтактный without contact; for example, “contactless delivery” would include leaving purchased items at the entryway of a home rather than handing it directly to a person.
36 Containment area Зона содержания a geographical zone with limited access in or out in an effort to contain an outbreak.
37 Essential business Основной бизнес although this definition varies between cities and states based on individual restrictions, essential businesses are those that serve a critical purpose, such as grocery stores, pharmacies, waste collection, health care providers, gas stations, banks, transportation and agriculture services.
38 Forehead thermometer Forehead thermometer a device that measures body temperature through hovering near or contact with the forehead rather than traditional insertion.
39 Immune surveillance Иммунный надзор the process of monitoring the immune system’s activities, which may include the detection and destruction of foreign substances, cells or tissues.
40 Immunosuppressed Иммуносупрессия an individual who experiences reduced efficacy of the immune system as a result of health conditions not related to COVID-19 disease.
41 Intensivist Реаниматолог a physician who specializes in treating patients who are in intensive care or in intensive care units.
42 Lockdown Карантин an emergency measure in which individuals are restricted from certain areas in an attempt to control exposure or transmission of disease. In a lockdown during an epidemic, individuals are encouraged to stay home.
43 Presumptive positive case Предположительно положительный случай an individual who has tested positive for COVID-19 by a local public health lab, but whose results are awaiting confirmation from the CDC.
44 Person under investigation (PUI) Исследуемый an individual who is suspected of potentially having COVID-19.
45 Remdesivir Ремдесивир an investigational antiviral drug that is administered intravenously and inhibits viral replication.
46 Respirator Респиратор a device designed to protect individuals from inhaling something hazardous in the air, in this case, particulate that may be contaminated with the SARS-CoV-2 virus.
47 Screening Скрининг the act of verifying symptoms and potential exposure before testing for the virus.
48 Self-isolation Самоизоляция the act of separating oneself from others.
49 Ease Облегчать to make something less strict or severe. Some people are worried that the USA eased the restrictions too quickly.
50 Body temperature Температура тела The normal adult body temperature is 36.5 to 37 degrees Celsius. A high temperature or fever is 38 degrees Celsius or above.
51 Chain of infection Цепь заражения This is how an infection spreads from one person to another.
52 Co-morbidity Сопутствующие заболевания This means having two different health conditions at the same time. COVID-19 has been found to be particularly severe for people who have other health issues.
53 Compromised immune system Ослабленная иммунная система This is where you have a weak immune system (immunosuppressed).
54 Disinfectant Дезинфицирующее средство This is a chemical liquid that kills bacteria. A common disinfectant is bleach.
55 Endemic Эндемичный The constant presence of a disease in a population within a certain area.
56 Exponential growth Экспоненциальный рост This means that numbers increase over time very rapidly as they multiply every day.
57 Health literacy Медицинская грамотность Strong health literacy is important as we are dealing with a lot of health information during this COVID-19 outbreak.
58 Immunisation Иммунизация This is process where a person is made immune or resistant to an infectious disease, usually by giving them a vaccine.
59 Virologist Вирусолог A scientist or doctor who studies viruses and the diseases viruses cause.
60 WHO (World Health Organisation) ВОЗ (Всемирная организация здравоохранения) The authority responsible for public health within the United Nations system (about 53 countries). It has excellent information resources including videos about washing hands and how to social distance.
61 Remote working Удаленная работа refers to a job that is done outside of the office.
62 Symptoms Симптомы a physical or mental sign indicating the presence of a disease (include sneezing, runny nose, cough, fatigue, fever, shortness of breath, etc.).
63 Swab test Мазок a small piece of soft material used for taking a small amount of substance from a body, or the substance itself that can then be tested.
64 "First shot", "Second shot" of vaccine Первая, Вторая прививка от вакцины first and second substances used to protect humans and animals from a disease.

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