Таблица модальных глаголов

Материал для изучения

Verb / Глагол

Use

Назначение

Example / Пример

Be able to

Present ability

Способность в настоящем

Despite his disability, he is able to drive a car.

Future ability / possibility

Способность / возможность в будущем

After you receive the password you’ll be able to log on.

Past ability / possibility

Способность / возможность в прошлом

We weren’t able to get cheap flights to Malaga.

Can / can’t

Present ability

Способность в настоящем

Can you speak Japanese?

Present possibility

Возможность в настоящем

You can use this phone anywhere in the world.

Arrangement

Договоренность

The dentist can see you at 3.30.

General possibility

Общее допущение / возможность

Bad weather can cause delays at any time.

Permission

Разрешение

Can I use your bathroom?

Prohibition

Запрещение

Doctors can’t give drugs to shorten life.

Can

Offers

Предложение

Can I help you with that?

Requests

Просьба

Can you help me with these bags?

Can’t

Present deduction (impossibility)

Дедукция / заключение в настоящем

It can’t be her, she’s on holiday in Canada.

Can’t have + past participle

Past deduction (certainty)

Дедукция / заключение в прошлом

She can’t have fixed this computer – it’s still not working properly.

Could / couldn’t

Past ability

Способность в прошлом

Could the first cameras take colour photos?

Past general possibility

Общее допущение / возможность в прошлом

The teachers could be very strict at my old school.

Present speculation

Спекуляция / предположение в настоящем

There could be life on other planets.

Present deduction (impossibility)

Дедукция / заключение в настоящем (невозможность)

He couldn’t be the senior doctor – he’s far too young.

Past prohibition

Запрещение в прошлом

In those days, women and criminals couldn’t vote.

Could

Permission

Разрешение

Could we stay an extra night in the hotel?

Past permission

Разрешение в прошлом

In the 1960s you could smoke in cinemas.

Unlikely to happen

Навряд ли произойдет

We could get a part-time job next summer.

Future possibility

Возможность в будущем

I could get a part-time job next summer.

Suggestion

Предложение / рекомендация

We could watch a DVD.

Offer

Предложение

I could get Lucy’s present for you.

Request

Просьба

Could you help me with this?

Could + have + past participle

Past possibility

Возможность в прошлом

David could have overslept.

Past ability not used / opportunity not taken

Неиспользованная возможность / способность

I could have argued with him, but what’s the point? She could have paid by cheque but she preferred cash.

Weak criticism

Нестрогий критицизм

She could have thanked me for the lift.

Couldn’t + have + past participle

Past deduction (certainty)

Дедукция / заключение в прошлом

Lester couldn’t have been driving the car – he doesn’t even own a car!

Had to / didn’t have to

Past obligation

Обязательство в прошлом

We had to have lots of vaccinations for our trip to Goa.

Lack of necessity

Отсутствие необходимости

We didn’t have to pay for the tickets. They were free.

Have to / don’t have to

Present obligation

Обязательство в настоящем

All car passengers have to wear a seat belt.

Lack of necessity

Отсутствие необходимости

You don’t have to pay to visit most museums in Britain.

Future obligation

Обязательство в будущем

We’ll have to get visas for our trip to the States.

Had better (not)

Advice / warnings (single situation)

Совет / предупреждение (одна ситуация)

That looks hot. You’d better not touch it. You’d better change the locks in case the burglars come back.

May / may not

Permission

Разрешение

May I leave early this afternoon?

Offers

Предложение

May I help you?

Specific present possibility

Определенная возможность в настоящем

The manager may be in a meeting. I’ll just check.

Future speculation

Спекуляция / предположение в будущем

The tickets may not arrive in time.

Might / might not

Specific present possibility

Определенная возможность в настоящем

It’s a small shop. They might not have batteries.

Future speculation

Спекуляция / предположение в будущем

If we wait a few days, the prices might be cheaper.

Might (not) have + past participle

Past speculation (possibility)

Спекуляция / предположение в прошлом (возможность)

She might have done it – she had the opportunity and the motive.

Weak criticism

Нестрогий критицизм

You might have told me about the party.

Must

Strong obligation

Сильное / строгое обязательство

All answers must be written in ink.

Future obligation

Обязательство в будущем

I really must get to the dentist next week.

Must not

Prohibition

Запрещение

This appliance must not be used in bathrooms.

Must

Recommendation

Рекомендация

You must try this cake – it’s delicious!

Present deduction (certainty)

Спекуляция / предположение в настоящем (уверенность)

This must be the place – it’s the restaurant in the street.

Must + have + past participle

Past deduction ( certainty)

Спекуляция / предположение в прошлом (уверенность)

There was a long bang last night. It must have been an explosion.

Need to/don’t need to/needn’t

Necessity / lack of necessity

Необходимость / отсутствие необходимости

He really needs to lose some weight. You needn’t / don’t need to take any food. Lunch is provided. 

Needed to / didn’t need to

Past necessity / lack of necessity

Необходимость / отсутствие необходимости в прошлом

Javier needed to go to hospital when he broke his leg. I didn’t need to see a doctor. My cold got better on its own.

Needn’t + have+ past participle

A past action that wasn’t necessary

Действие в прошлом, которые не было необходимом

You needn’t have taken a towel. The gym provides them free of charge.

Ought (not) to

Advice

Совет

You look terrible! You ought to see a doctor.

Expectation

Ожидание

The plane ought to be landing about now.

Ought (not) to + have+ past participle

Past expectation

Ожидание в прошлом

I don’t know where our main speaker is. He ought to have arrived ages ago.

Unfulfilled past obligation

Невыполненное обязательство

You really ought to have registered before the term started.

shall

Suggestion

Предложение / рекомендация

Shall we try that new café?

Offer

Предложение

Your hands are wet. Shall I get you a towel?

Should / should not

Expectation

Ожидание

Phone Henry at work. She should be there by now.

Advice

Совет

Should I ask my boss for a pay rise?

Should + have+ past participle

Past expectation

Ожидание в прошлом

That letter should have arrived by now.

Unfulfilled past obligation

Невыполненное обязательство в прошлом

You really should have registered before the term started.

Past criticism

Критицизм в прошлом

You shouldn’t have driven through that red light.

Will / won’t

Future certainty / near certainty

Уверенность / почти наверняка

We’ll be able to get a coffee at the airport.

It’ll be cold there at this time of the year.

Present habits

Привычное действие в настоящем

The union will always support the staff in a dispute.

(un)willingness

Желание / нежелание

Jim will act as referee today as Martin can’t make it.

Offers, promises

Предложение, обещание

I’ll get you a sandwich. Which one do you want?

Will / won’t + have+ past participle

Certainty about a past event

Уверенность о событии в прошлом

We sent the invitations on Monday, so they will have received them by now.

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