1. Circle the correct modals to complete the sentences.
1 She can’thave / mighthave / musthave left her phone at school. Or perhaps she left it on the bus.
2 There’s no pizza left. They can’thave / couldhave / musthave eaten it all.
3 Juliet can’thave / mayhave / musthavegone on holiday. She was at school yesterday!
4 I didn’t get your email. Do you think you can’thave / couldhave / musthave sent it to old email address?
5 Your smartwatch probably isn’t broken. It can’thave / couldhave / musthave run out of charge.
6 The school show is on YouTube. Our teacher can’thave / mighthave / musthave uploaded it.
7 You went 130 km in less than an hour? You can’thave / couldhave / musthave driven very fast!
8 Max isn’t replying to texts. He can’thave / mighthave / musthave taken his phone with him.
1 might have 2 must have 3 can’t have 4 could have
5 could have 6 must have 7 must have 8 can’t have
2. Complete the sentences with must have or can’t have and the verb in brackets.
1 Jack is usually here by now. He ________ (miss) his bus.
2 Madison didn’t know about the party. She ________ (get) your email.
3 Sam ________ (take) his phone with him; he isn’t answering text messages.
4 There’s no bread. We ________ (eat) it all at breakfast.
5 They’ve left school already. Their lessons ________ (finish) early today.
6 He ________ (injure) his leg really badly. He cycled home!
1 must have missed 2 can’t have got
3 can’t have taken 4 must have eaten
5 must have finished 6 can’t have injured
3. Write the correct reply (a-f) after sentences 1-6. Use should / shouldn’t have and the past participle form of the verb in brackets.
1 ‘ camcorder screen is damaged.’
2 ‘I think we’re driving in the wrong direction.’
3 ‘I’ve spent a fortune on phone this month!’
4 ‘ email account has been hacked again.’
5 ‘Mason is really angry with me.’
6 ‘ tablet is completely dead.’
a We (bring) the satnav.
b You (choose) a better password.
c You (charge) it overnight.
d You (drop) it on the pavement.
e You (make) those comments on Twitter.
f You (call) your friend when you were abroad.
1 d You shouldn’t have dropped it on the pavement.
2 a We should have brought the satnav.
3 f You shouldn’t have called your friend when you were abroad.
4 b You should have chosen a better password.
5 e You shouldn’t have made those comments on Twitter.
6 c You should have charged it overnight.
4. Complete the dialogue with the modals below. You can use the same modal more than once.
can't have may / might / could have
might not have must have
Erica What’s the matter, Jack? You look worried.
Jack I can’t find phone. I 1 _________ left it somewhere.
Erica Did you have it on the bus?
Jack Yes, I did. But I 2 _________ left it there because I used it just after I got off. I sent you a text.
Erica You 3 _________ dropped it when you were walking here from the bus stop.
Jack Yes, that’s possible. I was listening to MP3 player.
Erica Somebody 4 _________ found it by now and handed it in to the police.
Jack Or they 5 _________ handed it in. They 6 _________ kept in.
Erica Shall I phone the police station and ask?
Jack Yes, OK. But why don’t you call phone number first?
Erica OK, I will. I can hear your phone ringing.
Jack Me too. I 7 _________ dropped it in the street.
Erica No. You 8 _________ put it down somewhere in the house.
Jack That’s a relief! But where is it?
1 must have 2 can’t have 3 may / might / could have
4 may / might / could have 5 might not have
6 may / might / could have 7 can’t have 8 must have
5. Write replies for the sentences. Use the words in brackets.
1 ‘ back is really painful.’ (might have)
2 ‘Ellie has got a really expensive new phone.’ (must have)
3 ‘I failed science exam.’ (can’t have)
4 ‘I’ve deleted all photos by mistake.’ (should have)
5 ‘Anna left a rude message on Facebook page.’ (might not have)
6 ‘I haven’t got enough money for bus ticket.’ (shouldn’t have)
7 ‘It took Ben two hours to get home from school.’ (must have)
8 ‘I was hungry all morning at school.’ (can’t have)
9 ‘Molly seemed really disappointed with her exam result.’ (might have)
your own answers
6. Complete the sentences with the past modal form of must / might (not) / can’t and the verbs in brackets.
1 She ______________ a fortune for that mobile – it’s the very latest model! (pay)
2 I ______________ keys at home; I remember locking the door this morning. (leave)
3 The doctor wants me to have an X-ray because I ______________ arm. (break)
4 It’s possible that your wallet is in the car; you ______________ it. (lose)
5 I ______________ that report properly. It isn’t in the right folder. (save)
6 The test was really hard, but I think I ________ I hope so, anyway. (pass)
7 He ______________ email yet because I only sent it last night. (read)
8 phone is completely dead. It ______________ itself off. (turn)
1 must have paid 2 can’t have left 3 might have broken
4 might not have lost 5 can’t have saved 6 might have passed
7 might not have read 8 must have turned
7. Complete the dialogues with the past modal form of should (not) and the verbs below.
be install leave put take write
1 A I’ve forgotten password.
b You ______________ it down somewhere.
2 A I’ve dropped phone in the shower.
b You ______________ it into the bathroom.
3 A I’ve spilled coffee on computer.
b You ______________ the cup next to the keyboard.
4 A I think there’s some malware on laptop.
b You ______________ better antivirus software.
5 A I’ve cracked the screen of laptop.
b You ______________ more careful.
6 A I think somebody’s taken e-reader.
b You ______________ it on the desk.
1 should have written 2 shouldn’t have taken
3 shouldn’t have put/left 4 should have installed
5 should have been 6 shouldn’t have left/put